170 QA interview questions and answers from the top 5 QA(Quality Assurance) Websites


Q1. What is QA? What is QC?

Quality Assurance (QA): QA refers to the planned and systematic way of monitoring the quality of process which is followed to produce a quality product. QA tracks the outcomes and adjusts the process to meet the expectation.

Quality Control (QC): Concern with the quality of the product. QC finds the defects and suggests improvements. The process set by QA is implemented by QC. The QC is the responsibility of the tester.

Software Testing: is the process of ensuring that product which is developed by the developer meets the user requirement. The motive to perform testing is to find the bugs and make sure that they get fixed.
Q2. When to start QA in a project?
A good time to start the QA is from the beginning of the project startup. This will lead to plan the process which will make sure that product coming out meets the customer quality expectation. QA also plays a major role in the communication between teams. It gives time to step up the testing environment. The testing phase starts after the test plans are written, reviewed and approved.
Q3. What are verification and validation and difference between these two?
Verification: process of evaluating steps which is followed up to development phase to determine whether they meet the specified requirements for that stage.

Validation: process of evaluating product during or at the end of the development process to determine whether product meets specified requirements.
Difference between Verification and Validation:
• Verification is Static Testing where as Validations is Dynamic Testing.
• Verification takes place before validation.
• Verification evaluates plans, documents, requirements and specifications, where as Validation evaluates product.
• Verification inputs are checklist, issues list, walkthroughs and inspection, where as in Validation testing of actual product.
• Verification output is set of documents, plans, specifications and requirement documents where as in Validation actual product is output.
Q4. What is difference between Smoke testing and Sanity Testing?
The difference between smoke and sanity testing is described below:
• Sanity testing is performed when new build is released after fixing bugs where as smoke testing is performed to check the major functionalities of the application.
• Sanity is performed by the tester or the developer but smoke testing can be performed by the tester or developer.
• Smoke testing is performed earlier where as sanity is performed after the smoke testing.
• Sanity testing is narrow and deep approach of testing and smoke testing is focused testing based on major functionalities.
Q5. What is destructive testing, and what are its benefits?
Destructive testing includes methods where material is broken down to evaluate the mechanical properties, such as strength, toughness and hardness.
For example, finding the quality of a weld is good enough to withstand extreme pressure and also to verify the properties of a material.
Benefits of Destructive Testing (DT)
• Verifies properties of a material
• Determines quality of welds
• Helps you to reduce failures, accidents and costs
• Ensures compliance with regulations
Q6. What is Testware?
The testware is:
• The subset of software which helps in performing the testing of application.
• Testware are required to plan, design, and execute tests. It contains documents, scripts, inputs, expected results, set-up and additional software or utilities used in testing.
• Testware is term given to combination of all utilities and application software that required for testing a software package.
Testware is special because it has:
1. Different purpose
2. Different metrics for quality and
3. Different users
Q7. What is difference between Retesting and Regression testing?
The difference between Retesting and Regression testing are below:
• Retesting is done to verify defects fixes where as regression is perform to check if the defect fix have not impacted other functionality that was working fine before doing changes in the code.
• Retesting is planned testing based on the defect fixes listed where as regression is not be always specific to any defect fix. Also regression can be executed for some modules or all modules.
• Retesting concern with executing those test cases that are failed earlier whereas regression concern with executing test cases that was passed in earlier builds.
• Retesting has higher priority over regression, but in some case retesting and regression testing are carried out in parallel.
Q8. Explain bug life cycle.
Bug Life Cycle:
• When a tester finds a bug .The bug is assigned with NEW or OPEN status.
• The bug is assigned to development project manager who will analyze the bug .He will check whether it is a valid defect. If it is not valid bug is rejected, now status is REJECTED.
• If not, next the defect is checked whether it is in scope. When bug is not part of the current release .Such defects are POSTPONED
• Now, Tester checks whether similar defect was raised earlier. If yes defect is assigned a status DUPLICATE
• When bug is assigned to developer. During this stage bug is assigned a status IN-PROGRESS
• Once code is fixed. Defect is assigned with FIXED status.
• Next the tester will re-test the code. In case the test case passes the defect is CLOSED
• If the test case fails again the bug is RE-OPENED and assigned to the developer. That’s all to Bug Life Cycle.
Q9. What is severity and priority of bug? Give some example.
Priority: concern with application from the business point of view.
It answers: How quickly we need to fix the bug? Or How soon the bug should get fixed?
Severity: concern with functionality of application. It deals with the impact of the bug on the application.
How much the bug is affecting the functionality of the application?
• High Priority and Low Severity:
Company logo is not properly displayed on their website.
• High Priority and High Severity:
Suppose you are doing online shopping and filled payment information, but after submitting the form, you get a message like "Order has been cancelled."
• Low Priority and High Severity:
If we have a typical scenario in which the application get crashed, but that scenario exists rarely.
• Low Priority and Low Severity:
There is a mistake like "You have registered success" instead of successfully, success is written.
Q10. What are the common problems with software automation?
Software problem are listed below:
1. Purchasing the license of tool (QTP, selenium, QC, LR)
2. Lack of skilled Tester to run the tool
3. Expectation that automated tests will find a lot of new defects
4. Maintenance of automated tests
5. Technical problems of tools
Q11. What is the role of QA in a project development?
QA stands for QUALITY ASSURANCE. QA team assures the quality by monitor the whole development process. QA tracks the outcomes and adjusting process to meet the expectation.
The role of Quality Assurance is discussed below:
• QA team is responsible for monitoring the process to be carried out for development.
• Responsibilities of QA team are planning testing execution process.
• QA Lead creates the time tables and agrees on a Quality Assurance plan for the product.
• QA team communicated QA process to the team members.
• QA team ensures traceability of test cases to requirements.
Q13. What is the difference between build and release?
BUILD: is a number given to installable software that is given to testing team for testing by the development team. Build number assigned are incremental and sequential.
RELEASE: is a number given to installable software that is handed over to customer by the developer or tester.
The information of build, release and version are displayed in software help page. Using this build and release customer can let the customer team know which release version build thet are using.
eg "" (Release Number.Version Number.Build Number.Patch Number)
Q14. What are the key challenges of software testing?
Following are some challenges of software testing
1. Application should be stable enough to be tested.
2. Testing always under time constraint
3. Understanding requirements, Domain knowledge and business user perspective understanding
4. Which tests to execute first?
5. Testing the Complete Application
6. Regression testing
7. Lack of skilled testers.
8. Changing requirements
9. Lack of resources, tools and training
Q15.Why you choose automated testing over manual testing?
The reasons for choosing automation testing over manual testing are following:
1. Frequency of use of test case
2. Time Comparison (automated script run much faster than manual execution.)
3. Reusability of Automation Script
4. Adaptability of test case for automation.
5. Exploitation of automation tool.
Q16. What is the basis for choosing the SDLC model for development of software?
The choice of SDLC depends on the various factors, how stable are the requirements:
• When the requirements are very clearly know, documented and not subject to change then we can follow the waterfall model.
• Most of the companies follow the V mode for the development because this model includes both verification and validation activities and testing is involved in earlier phase.
• Iterative model can be used to build application where requirement changes after a period of times or application features or added on with smaller release. When the client is ready for the delivery of the product in parts or phases.
Q17. Explain bug leakage and bug release.
Bug Leakage: When customer or end user discovered a bug which can be detected by the testing team. Or when a bug is detected which can be detected in pervious build then this is called as Bug Leakage.
Bug release: is when a build is handed to testing team with knowing that defect is present in the release. The priority and severity of bug is low. It is done when customer want the application on the time. Customer can tolerate the bug in the released then the delay in getting the application and the cost involved in removing that bug. These bugs are mentioned in the Release Notes handed to client for the future improvement chances.
Q18. What is regression testing?
Regression Testing: When changes in the code of the software are made to fix the previous bug. Then testing needs to be perform to ensure that it will not generate a new bug in the application and it works as specified and that it has not negatively impacted any functionality that it offered previously. Regression Testing is important because of following reason:
• That the application works even after the alteration in the code were made.
• The original functionality continues to work as specified even after doing changes in the software application.
• The alteration to the software application has not introduced any new bugs.
Q19.What is data driven testing?
Data Driven is an automation testing part in which test input or output values, these values are read from data files. It is performed when the values are changing by the time. The different data files may include data pools, csv files, Excel files. The data is then loaded into variables in recorded or manually coded scripts. For data driven testing we use Parameterzing and Regular expression Technique.
Ex: To evaluate login functionality, we use different user name and password combinations, variables are used to access different username and password. The list of username and password are stored in a data table or excel sheet.
Q20. What is alpha and beta testing?
Alpha testing: is performed by the IN-House developers. After alpha testing the software is handed over to software QA team, for additional testing in an environment that is similar to the client environment.
Beta testing: It is performed by end user. So that they can make sure that the product is bug free or working as per the requirement. IN-house developers and software QA team perform alpha testing. The public, a few select prospective customers or the general public performs beta testing.

Q21. What are test driver and test stub and why we need them?
• The Stub is called from the software component to be tested. It is used in top down approach.
• The driver calls a component to be tested. It is used in bottom up approach.
• Both test stub and test driver are dummy software components.
We need test stub and test driver because of following reason:
• Suppose we want to test the interface between modules A and B and we have developed only module A. So we cannot test module A but if a dummy module is prepare, using that we can test module A.
• Now module B cannot send or receive data from module A directly so, in these cases we have to transfer data from one module to another module by some external features. This external feature used is called Driver.
Q22. What is Monkey testing?
Monkey testing is a type of Black Box Testing used mostly at the Unit Level. In this tester enter the data in any format and check the software is not crashing. In this testing we use Smart monkey and Dumb monkey.
• Smart monkeys are used for load and stress testing, they will help in finding the bugs. They are very expensive to develop.
• Dumb monkey, they are important for basic testing. They help in finding those bugs which are having high severity. Dumb monkey are less expensive as compare to Smart monkeys.
Example: In phone number filed Symbols are entered.
Q23. What is Bug Triage?
Bug triage is a process to:
• Ensure bug report completeness.
• Analyze and assign bug to proper component.
• Assign bug to proper bug owner.
• Set appropriate bug priority.
• Adjust bug severity properly.
Q24. What is Traceability Matrix?
Traceability Matrix is a method used to validate the compliance of product with requirements for that product. The requirement is written in a row of the matrix and the columns of the matrix. Now they are used to identify how and where each requirement has been addressed.
It is in the form of table that correlates two base lined documents that require a many-to-many relationship. It is used with high level requirement and detailed requirement of the software product to the matching parts of high level design, detailed design, test plan, and test cases. The relationship to the source documents is required for both backward traceability and forward traceability.
Q26. Explain paradigms for interfacing module.
The paradigms for interfacing modules:
• Procedure Call Interface: A procedure from one module calls to procedure of another module. The caller can pass data to the called procedure while calling and also the called procedure can pass data to the caller while returning control back to the caller procedure.
• Shared Memory: When a block of memory is shared between two modules. The memory block may be allocated by one of the two modules or third module of the same application.
• Message Passing Interface: One module generates a message and sends the message to another module. It helps in building up the communication between different process or modules.
Q27. What are the factors responsible for the estimation of system integration test cycle and total integration time?
The number of system integration test cycle and total integration time are determined by the following parameters:
• Number of modules in the system.
• Relative complexity of the modules.
• Relative complexity of the interface between the modules.
• Number of modules needed to be clustered together in each test cycle.
• Whether the modules to be integrated have been adequately tested before.
• Turnaround time for each test-debug-fix cycle.
Q28. What are the things the tests ensure?
Test must ensure that:
• The number of parameters sent in a message agrees with the number of parameters expected to receive.
• The parameter order in the message match the order expected.
• The field sizes and data type match.
• When a message is generated from stored data prior to being sent, the message truly reflects the stored data.
• When a received message is stored, data copying is consistent with the received message.
Q29. What is random testing?
When test inputs are selected randomly from the input domain of the system, this is Random Testing. Random testing involve following procedure:
• The input domain is selected.
• Test inputs are selected independently from the domain.
• The system under test is executed on these inputs. The inputs constitute a random test set.
• The results are compared to the system specification. The test is a failure if any input leads to incorrect results, otherwise it is a success.
Q30. What are the benefits of Automated Testing?
The benefits of Automation Testing are below:
• Test engineer productivity.
• Coverage of regression testing.
• Reusability of test cases.
• Consistency in testing.
• Test interval reduction
• Reduced software maintenance cost
• Increased test effectiveness
Q31. What is Agile Testing?
Agile Testing means to quickly validation of the client requirements and make the application of good quality user interface. When the build is released to the testing team, testing of the application is started to find the bugs. As a Tester, we need to focus on the customer or end user requirements. We put the efforts to deliver the quality product in spite of short time frame which will further help in reducing the cost of development and test feedbacks will be implemented in the code which will avoid the defects coming from the end user.

Q32. Describe Use Case Testing.
Use Case: A use case is a description of the process which is performed by the end user for a particular task. Use case contains a sequence of step which is performed by the end user to complete a specific task or a step by step process that describe how the application and end user interact with each other. Use case is written by the user point of view.
Use case Testing: the use case testing uses this use case to evaluate the application. So that, the tester can examines all the functionalities of the application. Use case testing cover whole application, tester performs this testing in step by step process to complete one task.
Q33. What type of tests you perform on the web based application?
For web application we perform following time of test:
1. Functionality Testing.
2. Usability Testing.
3. Navigation Testing.
4. Configuration and Compatibility testing.
5. Reliability and Availability Testing.
6. Performance Testing.
7. Load and Stress Testing.
8. Security Testing
Q34. What is Gantt Chart?
A Gantt Chart is used to represent a project schedule that includes duration of individual tasks or phases, their dependencies and ordering.
• It displays the start and end points of each task and the percentage of completion of each task
• It allows the planner to assess the duration of a project, identify the resources needed, and lay out the order in which tasks need to be performed.
• It is useful in managing the dependencies between tasks.
• Using Gantt chart each team member can view the product development schedule.
Q35 How to find all the Bugs during first round of Testing?
There could be several reasons for not debugging the entire bug in the first round of testing process. Debugging the showstopper in the first or second build is almost impossible. A found defect can cover up the other defects in the application. The thread which leads to on defect could be redirected to another defect, as the tester find the bug and lock that bug in report and after fixing of those bugs new bugs may also arises. It is difficult to keep testing on a known defective application. That is the reason we cannot find all the bug in first run and also we cannot perform Exhaustive testing.
Q36 How can u prepares the Test Plan without SRS?
We can prepare a test plan directly without having SRS, When the Requirements and URD(User Requirement Document )are available to us. URD is very helpful to determine the requirement of the user. The SRS document only contains the requirement of the user, but tester can also determine the requirement form the product. Without having SRS document we cannot estimate the Testing effort and cost of testing if we do not have SRS. SRS tell us on which platform our software is going to be used and on basis of this we perform the test on the application. Some time end user want to know what type of testing we are going to execute on the application for this we can send our test plan to the client.
Q37. What is the purpose of test strategy?
We need Test Strategy for the following reason:
1. To have a signed, sealed, and delivered document, where the document contains details about the testing methodology, test plan, and test cases.
2. Test strategy document tells us how the software product will be tested.
3. Test strategy document helps to review the test plan with the project team members.
4. It describes the roles, responsibilities and the resources required for the test and schedule.
5. When we create a test strategy document, we have to put into writing any testing issues requiring resolution.
6. The test strategy is decided first, before lower level decisions are made on the test plan, test design, and other testing issues.
Q38. What are the dimensions of the Risks?
The dimensions of the risk are described below:
Schedule: Unrealistic schedules. to develop a huge software in a single day..
Client: Ambiguous requirements definition, requirement and not clear, changes in the requirement etc.
Human Resources: Non-availability of sufficient resources with the skill level expected in the project.
System Resources: Non-availability of procuring all critical computer resources either hardware and software tools or licenses for software will have an adverse impact.
Quality: Compound factors like lack of resources along with a tight delivery schedule and frequent changes to requirements will have an impact on the quality of the product tested.

Q39. How to Estimate Testing effort ?
Time Estimation method for Testing Process:
Step 1 : count number of use cases (NUC) of system
Step 2 : Set Avg. Time Test Cases(ATTC) as per test plan
Step 3 : Estimate total number of test cases (NTC)
Total number of test cases = Number of Use Cases X Avg. Test Cases per a use case
Step 4 : Set Avg. Execution Time (AET) per a test case
Step 5 : Calculate Total Execution Time (TET)
TET = Total number of test cases * AET
Step 6 : Calculate Test Case Creation Time (TCCT)
usually we will take 1.5 times of TET as TCCT
TCCT = 1.5 * TET
Step 7 : Time for Re-Test Case Execution (RTCE) this is for retesting
usually we take 0.5 times of TET
RTCE = 0.5 * TET
Step 8 : Set Report generation Time (RGT
usually we take 0.2 times of TET
RGT = 0.2 * TET
Step 9 : Set Test Environment Setup Time (TEST)
it also depends on test plan
Step 10 : Total Estimation time = TET + TCCT+ RTCE + RGT + TEST + some buffer.
Q40. How to create requirements test matrix template?
For a requirements test matrix template we perform following step:
Step 1: Find out number of requirements.
Step 2: Find out number of test cases.
Step 3: Create a table based on these. Let we have 10 requirements and 40 test cases, then we create a table of 11 rows and 41 columns.
Step 4: On the first column of table copy all your 10 requirement numbers, and paste them into rows 2 through 11 of the table.
Step 5: Now copy all 40 test case numbers, and paste them into columns 2 through 41 of the table.
Step 6: Examine each of your 40 test cases, determine which of the 10 requirements they satisfy.
Q41. Can you perform regression testing performed manually?
Yes we can perform regression testing manually, but it requires lots of effort. To choose the way of doing the regression testing is totally depends on the initial testing approach. If the initial testing approach was manual testing, then the regression testing is usually performed manually. In case, if the initial testing approach was automated testing, then the regression testing is usually performed by automated testing. Automated regression testing is very easy task.
Q42. You are a tester. Now How will you choose which defect to remove in 1000000 defects?
First thing testers are not responsible for fixing the bug they are only responsible for debugging the bug and prioritizing those bugs. These bugs are now reported in bug report template with the severity and priority of the bug. Tester assigns severity level to the defects depending upon their impact on other parts of application. Every bug has its severity and priority values assign by tester. If a defect does not allow you to go ahead and test the product, it is critical one so it has to be fixed as soon as possible. We have 5 levels as:
• Critical
• High
• Medium
• Low
• Cosmetic
Q43.How do you perform integration testing?
Integration testing is black box testing. Integration testing focuses on the interfaces between units, to make sure the units work together. For integration testing we ensure that all units testing of the each component is performed earlier. Integration testing begins only after the unit testing. The purpose of integration testing is to ensure different components of the application interact with each other. So that, components work as per the customer requirements. Test cases are developed with the purpose of exercising the interfaces between the components. Integration testing is considered complete, when actual results and expected results are same.
Q44. What is the testing lifecycle?
There is no standard testing life cycle, but it is consist of following phases:
• Test Planning (Test Strategy, Test Plan, Test Bed Creation)
• Test Development (Test Procedures, Test Scenarios, Test Cases)
• Test Execution
• Result Analysis (compare Expected to Actual results)
• Defect Tracking

Q45.What is good code?
A good code is code that works. The good code must not contain the defect or bug and is readable by other developers and easily maintainable. Organizations have coding standards all developers should follow, and also every programmer and software engineer has different ideas about what is best and what are too many or too few rules. We need to keep in mind that excessive use of rules can decrease both productivity and creativity. Peer reviews and code analysis tools can be used to check for problems and enforce standards.
Q46. What are the main attributes of test automation?
The main attributes are discussed below:
Maintainability: For each new release need to update the test automation suites.
Reliability: Accuracy and repeatability of the test automation.
Flexibility: Ease of working with all the different kinds of automation test ware.
Efficiency: Total cost related to the effort needed for the automation.
Portability: Ability of the automated test to run on different environments.
Robustness: Effectiveness of automation on an unstable or rapidly changing system.
Usability: Extent to which automation can be used by different types of user.
Q47. What could go wrong with test automation?
Followings things may be go wrong in test automation:
• Ignoring automation, while planning the development phases.
• In design Phase not choosing the right technology.
• In coding Phase not automating the right test cases.
• Tool selection might go wrong.
• Test script not be updated when application is continuously changing.
• Test data should be unique, if the same data is available on the application then the application will not accept the data that we are going to add via automation.
Q48. What tools are available to support testing during development of application?
Following tools can be used to support testing during development of application:
• Test management tools example: Quality Center, JIRA.
• Defect management tool example: Bugzilla, Test Director.
• Project management: Sharepoint.
• Automation tools: QTP, RFT, WinRunner.
Q49. What are the tests activities that you want to automate in a project?
The following testing activities can be automated:
• Functional tests: Identify some P1 and P2 cases which are most critical for project success and operations and automate them. After every new build, these scripts will assure the fixes does not broke any of the critical functionality.
• Regression test suites: Test the need to be run after each build.
• Performance tests: Identical test the need to be run on different browser.
• Stress tests
• Load tests
Q50. What is the difference in responsibilities of Programmers and QA analyst?
The differences in responsibilities are listed below:
• QA is concern for Process Quality and Programmers are concern for Product Quality.
• QA ensure that the processes used for developing the product of high quality where as programmers used these processes so that end product is of good quality.
• Processes are decided by QA. Programmers are supposed to follow the processes so that they can produce a good quality product.
Any issue found during execution of process by the programmers is communicated to the QA so that they can improve the process.
Q51. What is the role of Bug Tracking System?
The Bug Tracking System role is discussed below:
• Testers and developers can know the status of the bug at every stage.
• Changes to the Status will be available to all team members.
• Developers and Testers can easily interact with bugs.
• Repetition of bugs will be avoided.
• Easy to distribute the bug among the developer.
• It will act as a centralized one for defects.
Q52. How do you prioritize testing tasks within a project?
Test Process are execute in step by step. We cannot skip any of the process defined. Following is the Test Process which are in terms of their priority:
1. Preparation of Test Plan.
2. Preparation of Test Cases.
3. Execution of the Test Cases.
4. Defect report and tracking.
5. Test Report Summary.
Q54 Describe Bottom-Up and Top-Down approach in Testing.
Bottom Up Approach:
• The bottom up approach testing approach is carried out with the help of the test driver. The test driver calls a component to be tested.
• The modules in the lower level of call hierarchy are tested independently. Then the next level modules are tested that call previously tested modules. This is done repeatedly until all the modules are included in the testing.
• Bottom up testing stops when the top module in the call hierarchy is tested with all lower call hierarchy modules.
Top Down Approach:
• the top down approach is carried out with the help of the test stub. Test stub are the dummy programs. The Stub is called from the software component to be tested.
• Tests top layer of controlling subsystem first. Then combine modules that are called by the tested modules and test resulted collection of modules.
• Do this until all the modules are combined and tested.
Q55. What methodologies do you used to develop test cases?
For developing the test cases we use following strategies:
• Error Guessing: The tester has to guess what fault might occur and to design the tests to represent them.
• Equivalence Class Partitioning: The input domain data is divided into different equivalence data classes; take few valid values with 2 invalid values. This is used to reduce the total number of test cases to a finite set of testable test cases.
• Boundary value analysis: Boundary value analysis testing technique is used to identify errors at boundaries rather than finding those exist in center of input domain. Boundary value analysis is a next part of Equivalence.
Q56. What are the differences between test strategy and test plan?
The differences between these two are described below:
• Test plan is dynamic where as test strategy is static.
• Test plan is prepared by the Test Lead where as Test Strategy is prepared by the company management.
• Test strategy defines: methods and coverage criteria to be covered test completion criteria, prioritization of the test where as Test plan is a document describing the scope, approach, resources and schedule of intended test activities.
Test Strategy is a high level description of the test levels to be performed where as Test plan is written record of the test strategy and resource planning.
Q57. What is the need of Test Plan document?
Test Plan tells the tester that what needs to be tested and how testing is going to be performed. Test plan also tells that what resources are needed for the execution of the test cases, timelines and risk associated with the test plan. We can also perform the testing without test plan document, but first we have to select test Approach for the testing and go with testing. Many test plans are being created just for the sake of processes. Many tester use test plan documents when test plan document contains the some useful information.
Q58. Why we do load and performance testing?
Load Testing: The reason to perform the load testing is to determine response times of application processes and transactions to establish whether they are within acceptable time limit or not, as per user requirement. It also measures the capability of an application to function correctly under load by measuring the systems key performance indicators.
Performance Testing: Performance Testing is performed to determine response time of the some components of the system perform under a particular workload. It is generally measured in terms of response time for the user activity. It is designed to test the overall performance of the system at high load and stress condition
Q59.What is difference between test effectiveness and test efficiency?
• Test Efficiency is the ratio of number of test cases executed by unit of time (generally per hour).
• It is the amount of code and testing resources required by a program to perform a particular function. Test Effectiveness evaluates the effect of the test environment on the application.
• Test Effectiveness is a measure by the customer response on meeting product requirements where as Test Efficiency is a measure of optimum utilization of resources to create the Software product.
Q60.What is data driven testing?
Data Driven is an automation testing part in which test input or output values, these values are read from data files. It is performed when the values are changing by the time. The different data files may include data pools, csv files, Excel files. The data is then loaded into variables in recorded or manually coded scripts. For data driven testing we use Parameterzing and Regular expression Technique.
Ex. Let we want to sign up to create an account in Gmail for 100 users. For this we pet all the user detail in a single excel sheet or use a single script.
Q61. Can Manual Testing be completely replaced by Automation Testing?
Automated testing cannot replace manual testing because of following reason:
• Automated testing cannot replace the analytical skills required to conduct testing. It can only enhance or supplement manual testing,
• Through manual testing, information can be gathered about the application, and real-time decisions can be made about how to enhance a test that would be too difficult to program into an automated script.
We need a manual tester to analyze and maintain the automated scripts after they can run.
Q62 Why regression testing is important?
Regression Testing: When changes in the code of the software are made to fix the previous bug. Then testing needs to be perform to ensure that it will not generate a new bug in the application and it works as specified and that it has not negatively impacted any functionality that it offered previously. Regression Testing is important because of following reason:
• That the application works even after the alteration in the code were made.
• The original functionality continues to work as specified even after doing changes in the software application.
• The alteration to the software application has not introduced any new bugs.
Q63. What is Exploratory Testing and Specification-Driven testing?
Exploratory testing: means testing an application without a test plan and test script. In exploring testing test explore the application on the basis on his knowledge. The tester has no knowledge about the application previously. He explores the application like an end user and try to use it. While using the application his main motive is to find the bugs which are in the application.
Specification-driven testing: means to test the functionality of software according to the user requirements. In this, tester inputs multiple data and monitors the outputs from, the test object. In this testing tester evaluate the showstopper bugs which break the major functionality of the application. This type of testing requires test plan and test.
Q64. Explain CMM.
Capability Maturity Model (CMM) is divided in five levels:
1. Initial: The organization is characterized by an adhoc set of activities. The processes aren't defined and success depends on individual effort and heroics.
2. Repeatable: In this level some processes are repeatable, possibly with consistent results.
3. Defined: In this level, we define all processes are documented for both management and engineering activities, and standards.
4. Managed: Detailed measures of each process are defined and product quality data is routinely collected. Both process and products are quantitatively understood and controlled.
5. Optimizing: In this we optimize the application by following improvement process.
Q65. How do you decide you have tested enough?
The principle of testing says that exhaustive testing is impossible. i.e. testing everything is not feasible. We cannot test till all the defects are debugged and removed, it is simply impossible. We have to stop testing and ship the software. We can decide when to stop is testing based on following points:
• When there is no time and budget.
• When maximum number of test cases are executed.
• All the Requirements are mapped that is RTM is filled completely.
• When Test coverage is more than 80%.
• When bug rate falls below certain level.
Q66. What the purpose of testing?
Software Testing: is the process of assuring that product which is developed by the manufactured by developer is meeting the user requirement. The motive to perform testing is to find the bugs and make sure that they get fixed. The purposes of testing are following:
• Quality assurance, Verification and Validation,
• To find the bugs before the product is released to customer.
• To improve the quality of the product
The Purpose of Testing is to evaluate that the product is according to requirements

Q67. What is Dynamic Testing?
Ans. It is the testing done by executing the code or program with various input values and output is verified.
Q68. What is GUI Testing?
Ans. GUI or Graphical user interface testing is the process of testing software user interface against the provided requirements/mockups/HTML designs.
Q69. What is Formal Testing?
Ans. Software verification carried out by following test plan, testing procedures and proper documentation with an approval from customer
Q70. What is Risk Based Testing?
Ans. Identifying the critical functionality in the system then deciding the orders in which these functionality to be tested and applying testing.
Q71. What is Early Testing?
Ans. Conducting testing as soon as possible in development life cycle to find defects at early stages of SDLC.
Early testing is helpful to reduce the cost of fixing defects at later stages of STLC.
Q72. What is Exhaustive Testing?
Ans. Testing functionality with all valid, invalid inputs and preconditions is called exhaustive testing.
Q73. What is Defect Clustering?
Ans. Any small module or functionality may contain more number of defects – concentrate more testing on these functionality.
Q74. What is Pesticide Paradox?
Ans. If prepared test cases are not finding defects, add/revise test cases to find more defects.
Q75. What is Static Testing?
Ans. Manual verification of the code without executing the program is called as static testing. In this process issues are identified in code by checking code, requirement and design documents.
Q76. What is Positive Testing?
Ans. Testing conducted on the application to determine if system works. Basically known as “test to pass” approach.
Q77. What is Negative Testing?
Ans. Testing Software with negative approach to check if system is not “showing error when not supposed to” and “not showing error when supposed to”.
Q78. What is End-to-End Testing?
Ans. Testing the overall functionality of the system  including the data integration among all the modules is called end to end testing.
Q79. What is Exploratory Testing?
Ans. Exploring the application, understanding the functionality, adding (or) modifying existing test cases for better testing is called exploratory testing.
Q80. What is Monkey Testing
Ans. Testing conducted on a application without any plan and carried out with tests here and there to find any system crash with an intention of finding tricky defects is called monkey testing.
Q81. What is Non-functionality Testing?
Ans. Validating various non functional aspects of the system such as user interfaces, user friendliness security, compatibility, Load, Stress and Performance etc is called non functional testing.
Q82. What is Usability Testing?
Ans. Checking how easily the end users are able to understand and operate the application is called Usability Testing.
Q83. What is Security Testing
Ans. Validating whether all security conditions are properly implemented in the software (or) not is called security testing.
Q84. What is Performance Testing?
Ans. Process of measuring various efficiency characteristics of a system such as response time, through put, load stress transactions per minutes transaction mix.
Q85. What is Load Testing?
Ans. Analyzing functional and performance behavior of the application under various conditions is called Load Testing.
Q86. What is Stress Testing?
Ans. Checking the application behavior under stress conditions
Reducing the system resources and keeping the load as constant checking how does the application is behaving is called stress testing.
Q87. What is Process?
Ans. A process is set of a practices performed to achieve a give purpose; it may include tools, methods, materials and or people.
Q88. What is Software Configuration Management?
Ans. The process of identifying, Organizing and controlling changes to software development and maintenance.
A methodology to control and manage a software development project
Q89. What is Testing Process / Life Cycle?
Ans. Write Test  Plan
Test Scenarios
Test Cases
Executing Test Cases
Test Results
Defect Reporting
Defect Tracking
Defect Closing
Test Release
Q90. What is full form of CMMI?
Ans. Capability Maturity Model Integration
Q91. What is Code Walk Through?
Ans. Informal analysis of the program source code to find defects and verify coding techniques.
Q92. What is Unit Level Testing?
Ans. Testing of single programs, modules or unit of code.
Q93. What is Integration Level Testing?
Ans. Testing of related programs, Modules (or) Unit of code.
Partitions of the system ready for testing with other partitions of the system.
Q94. What is System Level Testing?
Ans. Testing of entire computer system across all modules.  This kind of testing can include functional and structural testing.
Q95. What is Alpha Testing?
Ans. Testing of whole computer system before rolling out to the UAT.
Q96. What is User Acceptance Testing  (UAT)?
Ans. Testing of computer system by client to verify if it adhered to the provided requirements.
Q97. What is Test Plan?
Ans. A document describing the scope, approach, resources, and schedule  of testing activities.  It identifies test items, features to be tested, testing tasks, who will do each task, and any risks requiring contingency planning.
Q98. What is Test Scenario?
Ans. Identify all the possible areas to be tested (or) what to be tested.
Q99. What is ECP (Equivalence Class Partition)?
Ans. It is method for deriving test cases.
Q100. What is a Defect?
Ans. Any flaw imperfection in a software work product.
Expected result is not matching with the application actual result.
Q101. What is Severity?
Ans. It defines the important of defect with respect to functional point of view i.e. how critical is defect  with respective to the application.
Q102. What is Priority?
Ans. It indicates the importance or urgency of fixing a defect
Q103. What is Re-Testing?
Ans. Retesting the application to verify whether defects have been fixed or not.
Q104. What is Regression Testing?
Ans. Verifying existing functional and non functional area after making changes to the part of the software or addition of new features.
Q105. What is Recovery Testing?
Ans. Checking if the system is able to handle some unexpected unpredictable situations is called recovery testing.
Q106. What is Globalization Testing?
Ans. Process of verifying software whether it can be run independent of its geographical and cultural environment. Checking if the application is having features of setting and changing language, date, format and currency if it is designed for global users.
Q107. What is Localization Testing?
Ans. Verifying of globalized application for a particular locality of users, cultural and geographical conditions.
Q108. What is Installation Testing?
Ans. Checking if we are able to install the software successfully (or) not as per the guidelines given in installation document is called installation testing.
Q109. What is Un-installation Testing?
Ans. Checking if we are able to uninstall the software from the system successfully (or) not is called Uninstallation Testing
Q110. What is Compatibility Testing?
Ans. Checking if the application is compatible to different software and hardware environment or not is called compatibility testing.
Q111. What is Test Strategy?
Ans. It is a part of test plan describing how testing is carried out for the project and what testing types needs to be performed on the application.
Q112. What is Test Case?
Ans. A Test case is a set of preconditions steps to be followed with input data and expected behavior to validate a functionality of a system.
Q113. What is Business Validation Test Case?
Ans. A test case is prepared to check business condition or business requirement is called business validation test case.
Q114. What is a Good Test Case?
Ans. A Test case that have high priority of catching defects in called a good test case.
Q115. What is Use Case Testing?
Ans. Validating a software to confirm whether it is developed as per the use cases or not is called use case testing.
Q116. What is Defect Age?
Ans. The time gap between date of detection & date of closure of a defect.
Q117. What is Showstopper Defect?
Ans. A defect which is not permitting to continue further testing is called Showstopper Defect
Q118. What is Test Closure?
Ans. It is the last phase of the STLC,  where the management prepares various test summary reports that explains the complete statistics of the project based on the testing carried out.
Q119. What is Bucket Testing?
Ans. Bucket testing is also know as A/B testing. It is mostly used to study the impact of the various product designs in website metrics. Two simultaneous versions are run on a single or set of web pages to measure the difference in click rates, interface and traffic.
Q120. What is What is Entry Criteria and Exit Criteria Software Testing?
Ans. The Entry Criteria is the process that must be present when a system begins, like,
SRS – Software
Use Case
Test Case
Test Plan
The Exit criteria ensures whether testing is completed and the application is ready for release, like,
Test Summary Report,
Defect Analysis Report.
Q121. What is Concurrency Testing?
Ans. This is a multiple user testing to access the application at the same time to verify effect on code, module or DB. mainly used to identify locking and deadlocking situations in the code.
Q122. What is Web Application Testing?
Ans. Web application testing is done on a website to check – load, performance, security, Functionality, Interface, Compatibility and other usability related issues.
Q123. What is Unit Testing?
Ans. Unit testing is done  to check whether the individual modules of the source code are working properly or not.
Q124. What is Interface Testing
Ans. Interface testing is done to check whether the individual modules are communicating properly as per specifications. Interface testing is mostly used to test the user interface of GUI applications.
Q125. What is Gamma Testing
Ans. Gamma testing is done when the software is ready for release with specified requirements, this testing is done directly by skipping all the in-house testing activities.
Q126. What is Test Harness?
Ans. Test Harness is configuring a set of tools and test data to test an application in various conditions, which involves monitoring the output with expected output for correctness.
The benefits of Testing Harness are: Productivity increase due to process automation and increase in product quality
Q127. What is Scalability Testing?
Ans. It is used to check whether the functionality and performance of a system, whether system is capable to meet the volume and size changes as per the requirements
Scalability testing is done using load test by changing various software, hardware configurations and testing environment.
Q128. What is Fuzz Testing?
Ans. Fuzz testing is a black box testing technique which uses a random bad data to attack a program to check if anything breaks in the application.
Q129. What is Difference between QA, QC and testing?
Ans. QA?
It is process oriented
Aim is to prevent defects in an application
Set of activities used to evaluate a developed work product
It is product oriented
Executing and verifying application with the intention of finding defects
Q130. What is Date Driven Testing?
Ans. It is Automation testing process in which application is tested with multiple set of data with different preconditions as an input to the script.
Q131) What is the difference between the QA and software testing?
The role of QA (Quality Assurance) is to monitor the quality of the process to produce a quality of a product. While the software testing, is the process of ensuring the final product and check the functionality of final product and to see whether the final product meets the user’s requirement.
Q132) What is Testware?
Testware is the subset of software, which helps in performing the testing of application.  It is a term given to the combination of software application and utilities which is required for testing a software package.
Q133) What is the difference between build and release?
Build: It is a number given to Installable software that is given to testing team by the development team.
Release: It is a number given to Installable software that is handed over to customer by the tester or developer.
Q134) What are the automation challenges that QA team faces while testing?
• Exploitation of automation tool
• Frequency of use of test case
• Reusability of Automation script
• Adaptability of test case for automation
Q135) What is bug leakage and bug release?
Bug release is when software or an application is handed over to the testing team knowing that the defect is present in a release.  During this the priority and severity of bug is low, as bug can be removed before the final handover.
Bug leakage is something, when the bug is discovered by the end users or customer, and missed by the testing team to detect, while testing the software.
Q136) What is data driven testing?
Data driven testing is an automation testing part, which tests the output or input values. These values are read directly from the data files. The data files may include csv files, excel files, data pools and many more. It is performed when the values are changing by the time.
Q137) Explain the steps for Bug Cycle?
• Once the bug is identified by the tester, it is assigned to the development manager in open status
• If the bug is a valid defect the development team will fix it and if it is not a valid defect, the defect will be ignored and marked as rejected
• The next step will be to check whether it is in scope, if it is happen so that, the bug is not the part of the current release then the defects are postponed
• If the defect or bug is raised earlier then the tester will assigned a DUPLICATE status
• When bug is assigned to developer to fix, it will be given a IN-PROGRESS status
• Once the defect is repaired, the status will changed to FIXED at the end the tester will give CLOSED status if it passes the final test.
Q138) What does the test strategy include?
The test strategy includes introduction, resource, scope and schedule for test activities, test tools, test priorities, test planning and the types of test that has to be performed.
Q139) Mention the different types of software testing?
• Unit testing
• Integration testing and regression testing
• Shakeout testing
• Smoke testing
• Functional testing
• Performance testing
• White box and Black box testing
• Alpha and Beta testing
• Load testing and stress testing
• System testing
Q140) What is branch testing and what is boundary testing?
The testing of all the branches of the application, which is tested once, is known as branch testing.  While the testing, which is focused on the limit conditions of the software is known as boundary testing.
Q141) What are the contents in test plans and test cases?
• Testing objectives
• Testing scope
• Testing the frame
• The environment
• Reason for testing
• The criteria for entrance and exit
• Deliverables
• Risk factors
Q142) What is Agile testing and what is the importance of Agile testing?
Agile testing is software testing, which involves the testing of the software from the customer point of view.  The importance of this testing is that, unlike normal testing process, this testing does not wait for development team to complete the coding first and then doing testing. The coding and testing both goes simultaneously.  It requires continuous customer interaction.
It works on SDLC ( Systems Development Life Cycle) methodologies, it means that the task is divided into different segments and compiled at the end of the task.
Q143) What is Test case?
Test case is a specific term that is used to test a specific element.  It has information of test steps, prerequisites, test environment and outputs.
Q144) What is the strategy for Automation Test Plan?
• The strategy for Automation Test Plan
• Preparation of Automation Test Plan
• Recording the scenario
• Error handler incorporation
• Script enhancement by inserting check points and looping constructs
• Debugging the script and fixing the issues
• Rerunning the script
• Reporting the result
Q145) What is quality audit?
The systematic and independent examination for determining the quality of activities is known as quality audit.  It allows the cross check for the planned arrangements, whether they are properly implemented or not.
Q146) How does a server or client environment affect software testing?
As the dependencies on the clients are more, the client or server applications are complex.
The testing needs are extensive as servers, communications and hardware are interdependent. Integration and system testing is also for a limited period of time.
Q147) What are the tools used by a tester while testing?
• Selenium
• Firebug
• OpenSTA
• WinSCP
• YSlow for FireBug
• Web Developer toolbar for firebox
Q148) Explain stress testing, load testing and volume testing?
• Load Testing: Testing an application under heavy but expected load is known as Load Testing.  Here, the load refers to the large volume of users, messages, requests, data, etc.
• Stress Testing: When the load placed on the system is raised or accelerated beyond the normal range then it is known as Stress Testing.
• Volume Testing:  The process of checking the system, whether the system can handle the required amounts of data, user requests, etc. is known as Volume Testing.
Q149) What are the five common solutions for software developments problems?
• Setting up the requirements criteria, the requirements of a software should be complete, clear and agreed by all
• The next thing is the realistic schedule like time for planning , designing, testing, fixing bugs and re-testing
• Adequate testing, start the testing immediately after one or more modules development.
• Use rapid prototype during design phase so that it can be easy for customers to find what to expect
• Use of group communication tools
Q150) What is a ‘USE’ case and what does it include?
The document that describes, the user action and system response, for a particular functionality is known as USE case.  It includes revision history, table of contents, flow of events, cover page, special requirements, pre-conditions and post-conditions.
Q151) What is CRUD testing and how to test CRUD?
CRUD testing is another name for Black Box testing.  CRUD stands for Create, Read, Update and Delete.
Q152) What is validation and verification in software testing?
In verification, all the key aspects of software developments are taken in concern like code, specifications, requirements and document plans.  Verification is done on the basis of four things list of issues, checklist, walkthroughs and inspection meetings. Following verification, validation is done, it involves actual testing, and all the verification aspects are checked thoroughly in validation.
Q153) What is thread testing?
A thread testing is a top-down testing, where the progressive integration of components follows the implementation of subsets of the requirements, as opposed to the integration of components by successively lower levels.
Q154) What is configuration management?
It is a process to control and document any changes made during the life of a project.  Release control, Change control and Revision control are the important aspects of configuration management.
Q155) What is Ad Hoc testing?
It is a testing phase where the tester tries to break the system by randomly trying the system’s functionality.  It can include negative testing as well.
Q156) List out the roles of software Quality Assurance engineer?
A software quality assurance engineer tasks include following things
• Writing source code
• Software design
• Control of source code
• Reviewing code
• Change management
• Configuration management
• Integration of software
• Program testing
• Release management process
Q157) Explain what are test driver and test stub and why it is required?
• The stub is called from the software component to be tested, it is used in top down approach
• The driver calls a component to be tested, it is used in bottom up approach
• It is required when we need to test the interface between modules X and Y and we have developed only module X. So we cannot just test module X but if there is any dummy module we can use that dummy module to test module X
• Now module B cannot receive or send data from module A directly, so in these case we have to transmit data from one module to another module by some external features. This external feature is referred as Driver
Q158) Explain what is Bug triage?
A bug triage is a process to
• Ensure bug report completeness
• Assign and analyze the bug
• Assigning bug to proper bug owner
• Adjust bug severity properly
• Set appropriate bug priority
Q159) List out various tools required to support testing during development of the application?
To support testing during development of application following tools can be used
• Test Management Tools: JIRA, Quality Center etc.
• Defect Management Tools: Test Director, Bugzilla
• Project Management Tools: Sharepoint
• Automation Tools: RFT, QTP, and WinRunner
Q160) Explain what is a cause effect graph?
A cause effect graph is a graphical representation of inputs and the associated outputs effects that can be used to design test cases.
Q161) Explain what is Test Metric is software testing and what information does it contains?
In software testing, Test Metric is referred to standard of test measurement. They are the statistics narrating the structure or content of a program.  It contains information like
• Total test
• Test run
• Test passed
• Test failed
• Tests deferred
• Test passed the first time
Q162) Explain what is traceability matrix?
A test matrix is used to verify the test scripts per specified requirements of test cases.
Q163) Explain what is the difference between Regression testing and Retesting?
Retesting is carried out to check the defects fixes, while regression testing is performed to check whether the defect fix have any impact on other functionality.
Q164) List out the software quality practices through the software development cycle?
Software quality practices includes
• Review the requirements before starting the development phase
• Code Review
• Write comprehensive test cases
• Session based testing
• Risk based testing
• Prioritize bug based on usage
• Form a dedicated security and performance testing team
• Run a regression cycle
• Perform sanity tests on production
• Simulate customer accounts on production
• Include software QA Test Reports
Q165) Explain what is the rule of a “Test Driven Development”?
The rule of a Test Driven Development is to prepare test cases before writing the actual code. Which means you are actually be writing code for the tests before you write code for the application.
Q166) Mention what are the types of documents in QA?
The types of documents in QA are
• Requirement Document
• Test Metrics
• Test cases and Test plan
• Task distribution flow chart
• Transaction Mix
• User profiles
• Test log
• User profiles
• Test incident report
• Test summary report
Q167) Explain what should your QA documents should include?
QA testing document should include
• List the number of defects detected as per severity level
• Explain each requirement or business function in detail
• Inspection reports
• Configurations
• Test plans and test cases
• Bug reports
• User manuals
• Prepare separate reports for managers and users
Q168) Explain what is MR and what information does MR consists of?
MR stands for Modification Request also referred as Defect report, it is written for reporting errors/problems/suggestions in the software.
Q169) What does the software QA document should include?
Software QA document should include
Q170) Mention how validation activities should be conducted?
Validation activities should be conducted by following techniques
• Hire third party independent verification and validation
• Assign internal staff members that are not involved in validation and verification activities
• Independent evaluation

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